Ubiquitin signalling in Drosophila innate immune responses

Anna Aalto, Veera Luukkonen, Annika Meinander*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Article or Literature Reviewpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Cells respond to invading pathogens and danger signals from the environment by adapting gene expression to meet the need for protective effector molecules. While this innate immune response is required for the cell and the organism to recover, excess immune activation may lead to loss of homeostasis, thereby promoting chronic inflammation and cancer progression. The molecular basis of innate immune defence is comprised of factors promoting survival and proliferation, such as cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and anti-apoptotic proteins. As the molecular mechanisms regulating innate immune responses are conserved through evolution, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a convenient, affordable and ethical model organism to enhance understanding of immune signalling. Fly immunity against bacterial infection is built up by both cellular and humoral responses, where the latter is regulated by the Imd and Toll pathways activating NF-κB transcription factors Relish, Dorsal and Dif, as well as JNK activation and JAK/STAT signalling. As in mammals, the Drosophila innate immune signalling pathways are characterised by ubiquitination of signalling molecules followed by ubiquitin receptors binding to the ubiquitin chains, as well as by rapid changes in protein levels by ubiquitin-mediated targeted proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. In this review, we summarise the molecular signalling pathways regulating immune responses to pathogen infection in Drosophila, with a focus on ubiquitin-dependent control of innate immunity and inflammatory signalling.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFEBS Journal
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

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