Pilot Study of Sap Properties of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Trees Used and Not Used for Sap-Feeding by Three-Toed Woodpeckers (Picoides tridactylus)

Tuula Jyske*, Sini Keinänen, Teemu Hölttä, Anna Lintunen, Andrey Pranovich, Tapio Laakso, Jussi Petteri Suuronen, Gabriel da Silva Viana, Timo Pakkala

*Tämän työn vastaava kirjoittaja

Tutkimustuotos: LehtiartikkeliArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

1 Sitaatiot (Scopus)
37 Lataukset (Pure)


The ecophysiology of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees that were used by three-toed woodpeckers (TTW) (Picoides tridactylus) for their sap-feeding activities were investigated. The pilot study was conducted in southern Finland (61°15′ N, 25°00′ E). During April–June 2015, three different tree categories of Norway spruce were selected for monitoring: trees that were frequently used by the TTWs for phloem sap-feeding for several previous years; trees that were only recently used by TTWs for sap-feeding; and control trees that were not used at all for sap-feeding. Phloem sap and phloem tissue samples were frequently extracted from tree trunks and analyzed for the content and composition of nonstructural carbohydrates, phloem sap osmolality, solute, and water content, as well as for the content and composition of secondary metabolites typical for defense reactions in the phloem. Simple crown characteristics were also measured, including tree height, diameter at breast height, and their ratio (slenderness index). According to our results, the TTWs preferred Norway spruce trees that showed advanced spring phenology to feed on, as evidenced especially by the lower ratio of raffinose (typically high during the winter months) to total soluble sugars of phloem tissues as compared to non-used control trees. The lower slenderness index of the trees chosen by the TTWs indicates low canopy competition pressure with good access to light (i.e., the sun heats the trunks well in spring). There were no differences in the phloem osmolality or solute content between the used or unused control trees. The trees used by the TTWs had significantly higher concentrations of antioxidant phenolic (+)-catechins and stilbene glycosides in phloem tissue, and the stilbene content was also higher in the extracted sap. The phenolics content of the phloem tissue had a clear seasonal trend, being the highest in the early spring and lower towards the onset of the cambial growth processes. The phloem sap is rich in antioxidants and soluble sugars that are potentially beneficial for the TTWs, but more quantitative research is needed to explore the importance of the sap properties to TTWs.

DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - 13 lokak. 2022
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Julkaistu artikkeli, soviteltu


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