Sulfenamide based radical generators that contain a nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) core, can alone provide flame retardancy in polypropylene (PP), polyethylene and polystyrene, as we have earlier demonstrated. Herein, sulfenamides potential as synergists with conventional halogen free flame retardants has been explored. Thus, five different sulfenamides were individually combined with selected eco-friendly, phosphorus based flame retardants or aluminium trihydroxide (ATH), and their effect on polypropylene flammability was assessed by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical flammability (UL 94 V) and cone calorimeter tests. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were carried out to detect changes in thermal behaviour when such two component FR systems were mixed together at different ratios. TGA-FTIR (thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) was used to investigate the differences in decomposition products of non-flame retarded versus flame retarded PP. Strong synergistic effects were observed, and the UL 94 V-0 rating was reached for PP with a total FR loading of 10 wt% using 8 wt% of phosphonate ester AFLAMMIT ® PCO 900 together with 2 wt% of sulfenamide flame retardant. In a ternary mixture of an additional phosphazene additive (SPB-100), the needed total concentration for V-0 rating was further reduced to 9 wt%. In addition, the combination of 4 wt% of aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) with 0.5 wt% of sulfenamide offered a unique halogen free solution for achieving UL 94 V-2 rating in PP. Cone calorimeter studies of an ammonium polyphosphate-pentaerythritol based intumescent system in combination with 0.5 wt% of sulfenamide also showed encouraging results. The char stability was enhanced, the peak of heat release rate (HRR), CO and CO 2 production and total smoke generation were all reduced compared to the reference sample without sulfenamide.
|Tidskrift||Polymer Degradation and Stability|
|Status||Publicerad - 2019|