The present research investigated the nature of power among women's principals in order to develop a theoretical framework. Relying on critical epistemology and qualitative approach, we used grounded theory to study the problem. Using a purposeful and theoretical sampling, we selected women and men's principals as well as the men whose spouses were employed in schools. We collected data with semi-structured interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and after three stage of coding, institutional discrimination was considered as core category. In addition, political, cultural and mental structures were considered as casual conditions affected the core category. Family- official responsibilities, educational context and media were found to be the mediating factors that affected the hegemony of masculinity in society. The women enhanced a kind of epistemic hope in order to empower themselves and struggle with these hegemonic conditions.