This paper addresses particulate matter (PM) size distributions in large-scale diesel engine exhaust. The test engines were multivariable large-scale turbo-charged, after-cooled medium speed (~ 500 rpm, ~ 1 MW power per cylinder) direct injection diesel engines. Emissions measurements were carried out while burning heavy fuel (HFO) and light fuel (LFO) oils. Test modes for investigation were propulsion mode (marine) and generator mode (power plant), with load varying from 25 to 100%. PM was measured using a gravimetric impactor with four impactor stages plus a filter, classifying particles between 0.005 and 2.5 μm (aerodynamic diameter). The results show that HFO firing produces significantly higher PM emissions (more than factor of ~three on mass bases for high load operation) compared to LFO, especially for particles smaller than 0.5 μm. This is mainly due to higher ash-forming elements and sulphur content of HFO. For HFO, the fraction of the finest particles increases with load, more strongly for generator mode than for propulsion mode, with generator mode giving ~ 50% higher PM emissions than propulsion mode. With LFO firing, the largest amount of fine PM was emitted at the lowest load, for propulsion mode being lower and almost independent of load at higher loads, while for generator mode a steady decrease in emissions with increasing load is seen for all PM size classes measured.