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Nanocelluloses have emerged as a catalogue of renewable nanomaterials for bioink formulation in service of 3D bioprinting, thanks to their structural similarity to extracellular matrices and excellent biocompatibility of supporting crucial cellular activities. From a material scientist’s viewpoint, this mini-review presents the key research aspects of the development of the nanocellulose-based bioinks in 3D (bio)printing. The nanomaterial properties of various types of nanocelluloses, including bacterial nanocellulose, cellulose nanofibers, and cellulose nanocrystals, are reviewed with respect to their origins and preparation methods. Different cross-linking strategies to integrate into multicomponent nanocellulose-based bioinks are discussed in terms of regulating ink fidelity in direct ink writing as well as tuning the mechanical stiffness as a bioactive cue in the printed hydrogel construct. Furthermore, the impact of surface charge and functional groups on nanocellulose surface on the crucial cellular activities (e.g., cell survival, attachment, and proliferation) is discussed with the cell–matrix interactions in focus. Aiming at a sustainable and cost-effective alternative for end-users in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields, challenging aspects such as biodegradability and potential nanotoxicity of nanocelluloses call for more fundamental comprehension of the cell–matrix interactions and further validation in in vivo models.
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