The cellular uptake of microcystin-LR, a cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, was studied by means of a radiolabelled derivative of the toxin. 3H-dihydromicrocystin-LR. The uptake of 3H-dihydromicrocystin-LR was shown to be specific for freshly isolated rat hepatocytes whereas the uptake in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep G2 as well as the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3, and the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, was negligible. By means of a surface barostat technique it was shown that the membrane penetrating capacity (surface activity) of microcystin-LR was low, indicating that the toxin requires an active uptake mechanism. The hepatocellular uptake of microcystin-LR could be inhibited in the presence of bile acid transport inhibitors such as antamanide (5 microM), sulfobromophthalein (50 microM) and rifampicin (30 microM). The uptake was also reduced in a concentration dependent manner when the hepatocytes were incubated in the presence the bile salts cholate and taurocholate. A complete inhibition of the hepatocellular uptake was achieved by 100 microM of either bile salt. The overall results indicate that the uptake of microcystin-LR is through the multispecific transport system for bile acids. This mechanism of cell entry would explain the previously observed cell specificity and organotropism of microcystin-LR.
|Tidskrift||BBA - Biomembranes|
|Status||Publicerad - 1990|