Epoxidation of the C=C double bond in unsaturated norlignans derived from hydroxymatairesinol was studied. The intermediate epoxides were formed in up to quantitative conversions and were readily further transformed into tetrahydrofuran, aryltetralin, and butyrolactone products—in diastereomeric mixtures—through ring-closing reactions and intramolecular couplings. For epoxidation, the classical Prilezhaev reaction, using stoichiometric amounts of meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA), was used. As an alternative method, a catalytic system using dimeric molybdenum-complexes [MoO2L]2 with ONO- or ONS-tridentate Schiff base ligands and aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant was used on the same substrates. Although the epoxidation was quantitative when using the Mo-catalysts, the higher temperatures led to more side-products and lower yields. Kinetic studies were also performed on the Mo-catalyzed reactions.