BackgroundAllergen-specific immunotherapy balances the Th2-biased immunity towards Th1 and Treg responses. Adjuvants are used in allergen preparations to intensify the immune responses. The increased prevalence of allergies in developed societies has been associated with decreased microbial load during childhood. This has initiated a search for microbial structures to be used as adjuvants. Our study has shown that a synthetic triacedimannose (TADM) may suppress the Th2-type allergic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of TADM with capacities of other adjuvants, CpG ODN and MPL, to modulate cytokine production in PBMC and regulate sensitisation in an OVA-sensitised mouse asthma model.MethodsThe effects of TADM were studied in vitro on birch stimulated PBMC cultures of birch allergic rhinitis patients with other known adjuvants. Cytokines in supernatants were measured by Luminex. Effects of TADM were analysed in vivo in a mouse model of OVA-induced allergic asthma by analysing BAL, cytokine mRNA and serum antibodies.ResultsTADM was the only adjuvant that significantly suppressed the production of all birch induced Th2-type cytokines. In a murine model, TADM significantly suppressed the specific IgE production and enhanced IFN-γ production.ConclusionsTADM suppresses the birch allergen induced Th2-type cytokine responses in allergic subjects more efficiently than the two other adjuvants, MPL and CpG ODN. TADM is immunomodulatory also in vivo and decreases the IgE levels and increases the IFN-γ responses in a murine model. These results suggest that TADM may be a promising candidate for novel adjuvants in immunotherapy.