This study explores prospective primary school teachers’ misconceptions concerning basic concepts in chemistry. The data was gathered during the years 2012–2016 among first-year primary school teachers in Finland (N = 389). The results show that every year, as many as 40%–80% of teachers share the same kinds of misconceptions as children ages 5–12 (depending on the investigated concepts). The results further show that the prospective primary teachers do not develop a solid foundation in chemistry during their school years, indicating that this area should be addressed more effectively in Finnish elementary schools. To raise the quality of school instruction, it is crucial that teacher education curricula consider this when methods of instruction in science courses are developed for prospective primary teachers.