The lipophilic extractives in stemwood and bark from three different heights of Populus euramericana Guariento were analyzed. The bark samples, especially from 4 and 8 meters height, contained much more extractives than the stemwood samples. The lipophilic extractives identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) were composed of five component groups (i.e. triglycerides, steryl esters, free fatty acids, sterols, and free fatty alcohols both in the stemwood and bark). Besides ferulic acid esters, -amyrin and its esters, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid esters of fatty alcohols were also identified in the stemwood and bark. Small amounts of alkanes and oligomeric or polymeric material with higher molar mass than triglycerides were present only in the bark. Glycerides, mainly triglycerides, were the largest component group of the lipophilic extractives. The high proportion of short-chain fatty acids released after alkaline hydrolysis are beneficial when removing pitch particles or fatty acid soaps by dispersing and washing during pulping and papermaking.