To elucidate the functions of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes in metabolic regulation, we determined plasma glucose and insulin levels and tissue uptake of the glucose analogue 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) in C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT) and alpha2A-adrenoceptor knockout (alpha2A-KO) mice at baseline and following alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist ((+)-4-(S)-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (dexmedetomidine)) and antagonist (4-[2-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl]-1H-imidazole (atipamezole)) administration. Basal glucose levels were 30% lower in alpha2A-KO mice than in WT mice. In WT mice, dexmedetomidine lowered insulin and elevated glucose levels, and atipamezole reduced glucose levels. In alpha2A-KO mice, neither drug affected the glucose or insulin levels. [18F]FDG uptake was investigated in plasma, heart, liver, kidney, pancreas, lung, fat, and skeletal muscle. Cardiac [18F]FDG uptake was a sensitive indicator of sympathetic function. Liver [18F]FDG uptake conformed to the plasma glucose levels. In alpha2A-KO mice, drug effects on [18F]FDG tissue uptake were absent. Thus, the alpha2A-adrenoceptor is the alpha2-adrenoceptor subtype primarily involved in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo.