Wear-Model-Based Analysis of the State of Blast Furnace Hearth

Mikko Helle, Henrik Saxén*, Bart de Graaff, Cornelis van der Bent

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


The condition and state of the hearth of the blast furnace is of considerable importance since the life length of the refractories governs the campaign length of the furnace, but it is also of significance as it affects the drainage of iron and slag and the hot metal temperature and composition. The paper analyses the hearth of a blast furnace using a model of the lining wear based on the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem, studying the changes in the lining state throughout the campaign. Different operation states are detected, characterized by smooth and efficient hot metal production and by erratic behavior with large disturbances in the hearth state. During the periods of poor performance, the hearth exhibits a cycling state with stages of excessive skull growth on the unworn refractory, followed by periods of dissolution of the skull and lining erosion. An explanation of the transitions is sought by a stating and solving a force balance for the deadman with the aim to clarify whether it is floating or sitting. A connection between the thermal cycles in the hearth and the hot metal sulfur content is finally demonstrated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)594-603
Number of pages10
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number1
Early online date4 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Blast furnace
  • hearth wear model
  • lining state
  • buildup material


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