Voltage dependent reduction rates of graphene oxide in cell culture medium, deionized water, and an ionic liquid

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The reduction rate of graphene oxide (GO) in cell culture media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium), deionized water and an ionic liquid (1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(tri-fluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, EMIM:TFSI) has been clarified, including the voltage and time dependence, by a non-electrical measurement method. The method utilizes the color change associated with the reduction of a GO film, from near transparent to black. The reduction of GO was found to be electrolyte dependent and no reduction occurred without an electrolyte facilitating the reduction, as expected. An increase in the reduction rate was observed for both aqueous media compared to EMIM:TFSI, a non aqueous reduction medium. The reduction in RPMI medium was slightly faster than in deionized water following a voltage dependent reduction rate of V-8, attributed to the complex mixture of bio-molecules and ions constituting the cell culture medium, compared to the voltage dependence of V-3 for the reduction in EMIM:TFSI. Our results indicate a strong influence on the reduction rate stemming from water splitting. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)66–71
Number of pages6
JournalOrganic Electronics
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Reduction rate
  • Cell culture medium
  • Electrochemical reduction
  • Graphene oxide
  • aqueous medium

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