Understanding the interaction of potassium salts with an ilmenite oxygen carrier under dry and wet conditions

Fredrik Hildor*, Maria Zevenhoven, Anders Brink, Leena Hupa, Henrik Leion

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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This study describes how potassium salts representative of those in bio ash affect the reactivity of the oxygen carrier ilmenite under moist and dry conditions. Ilmenite is a bench-mark oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion, a technique that can separate CO2 from flue gases with minimal energy penalty. Different potassium salts were mixed with ilmenite to a concentration of 4 wt % potassium. The salts used were K2CO3, K2SO4, KCl, and KH2PO4. Experiments were performed at 850 °C under alternately oxidizing and reducing conditions in a dry atmosphere or in the presence of steam. Analyses of the oxygen carrier regarding changes in reactivity, structure, and composition followed the exposures. This study showed that salts such as K2CO3, K2SO4, and KCl increase the reactivity of the ilmenite. For the samples mixed with KCl, most of the salt was evaporated. KH2PO4 decomposed into KPO3, forming layers around the ilmenite particles that lead to agglomeration. Additionally, the KPO3 layer was more or less nonpermeable for CO and decreased the reactivity toward H2 significantly in both dry and wet conditions. This decreased reactivity indicates that the concentration of phosphorus in biofuel may have a significant effect on oxygen carrier degradation. It was also observed that the presence of steam changed the chemistry drastically for the nonphosphorus-containing salts. Alkali salts may react with steam, forming volatile KOH that evaporates partly. KOH may also form K-titanates by reaction with the oxygen carrier, leading to segregation of iron and titanium phases in the ilmenite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22966-22977
Number of pages12
JournalACS Omega
Issue number36
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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