Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel

P Vainikka, Daniel Kristoffer Lindberg, A Moilanen, H Ollila, M Tiainen, J Silvennoinen, Mikko Hupa

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    The main fine particle (dp < 1 μm) forming elements found in combustion gases of anthropogenic waste or biomass fired boilers are typically K, Na and Cl, possibly complemented with S.  When these are excluded, in solid recovered fuel (SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn.  Fine particle compn. is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler.  As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the exptl. results are discussed with the support of thermodn. equil. modeling for estg. the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace.  The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estd. to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g)​.  It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as prodn. additives, stabilizers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants.  Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities.  SEM-​EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)202–211
    Number of pages10
    JournalFuel Processing Technology
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Bromine
    • Fine particles
    • RDF
    • Sludge
    • SRF
    • Trace elements

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