Three types of sexual harassment of females in public places in Pakistan

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Introduction: The study was aimed at investigating three types of sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan.

Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 543 female students in Pakistan (M=22.3 years, SD 4.3). The questionnaire included scales for measuring physical, verbal, and nonverbal sexual harassment, and four scales measuring reactions to sexual harassment.

Results: Sexual harassment was found to be most common in market places, and the perpetrator was typically a stranger. Nonverbal sexual harassment was the most frequent type. Only 2.8% of the respondents had never been victimised from any of the three types of sexual harassment. The most common reaction of the victims was to run away. Respondents highly victimised from physical, verbal or nonverbal harassment scored higher than others on defensive reactions, immediate distress, and long-term negative  concomitants. Educational level was not associated with the amount of victimisation from any type of sexual harassment, but respondents with a high education scored significantly higher on negative reactions to sexual harassment.

Discussion and Conclusion: Sexual harassment was associated with negative psychological concomitants for the victims. It can be concluded that sexual harassment in public places in Pakistan is a huge social problem that needs to be addressed.

Keywords: Education; concomitants; public places; Pakistan; sexual harassment.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)65–73
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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