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Microscopy analysis of tumour samples is commonly performed on fixed, thinly sectioned and protein-labelled tissues. However, these examinations do not reveal the intricate three-dimensional structures of tumours, nor enable the detection of aberrant transcripts. Here, we report a method, which we name DIIFCO (for diagnosing in situ immunofluorescence-labelled cleared oncosamples), for the multimodal volumetric imaging of RNAs and proteins in intact tumour volumes and organoids. We used DIIFCO to spatially profile the expression of diverse coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs at the single-cell resolution in a variety of cancer tissues. Quantitative single-cell analysis revealed spatial niches of cancer stem-like cells, and showed that the niches were present at a higher density in triple-negative breast cancer tissue. The improved molecular phenotyping and histopathological diagnosis of cancers may lead to new insights into the biology of tumours of patients.