Solanidine is a sensitive and specific dietary biomarker for CYP2D6 activity

Johanna I Kiiski, Mikko Neuvonen, Mika Kurkela, Päivi Hirvensalo, Kreetta Hämäläinen, E Katriina Tarkiainen, Johanna Sistonen, Mari Korhonen, Sofia Khan, Arto Orpana, Anne M Filppula, Marko Lehtonen, Mikko Niemi

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BACKGROUND: Individual assessment of CYP enzyme activities can be challenging. Recently, the potato alkaloid solanidine was suggested as a biomarker for CYP2D6 activity. Here, we aimed to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of solanidine as a CYP2D6 biomarker among Finnish volunteers with known CYP2D6 genotypes.

RESULTS: Using non-targeted metabolomics analysis, we identified 9152 metabolite features in the fasting plasma samples of 356 healthy volunteers. Machine learning models suggested strong association between CYP2D6 genotype-based phenotype classes with a metabolite feature identified as solanidine. Plasma solanidine concentration was 1887% higher in genetically poor CYP2D6 metabolizers (gPM) (n = 9; 95% confidence interval 755%, 4515%; P = 1.88 × 10-11), 74% higher in intermediate CYP2D6 metabolizers (gIM) (n = 89; 27%, 138%; P = 6.40 × 10-4), and 35% lower in ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizers (gUM) (n = 20; 64%, - 17%; P = 0.151) than in genetically normal CYP2D6 metabolizers (gNM; n = 196). The solanidine metabolites m/z 444 and 430 to solanidine concentration ratios showed even stronger associations with CYP2D6 phenotypes. Furthermore, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic and precision-recall curves for these metabolic ratios showed equal or better performances for identifying the gPM, gIM, and gUM phenotype groups than the other metabolites, their ratios to solanidine, or solanidine alone. In vitro studies with human recombinant CYP enzymes showed that solanidine was metabolized mainly by CYP2D6, with a minor contribution from CYP3A4/5. In human liver microsomes, the CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine nearly completely (95%) inhibited the metabolism of solanidine. In a genome-wide association study, several variants near the CYP2D6 gene associated with plasma solanidine metabolite ratios.

CONCLUSIONS: These results are in line with earlier studies and further indicate that solanidine and its metabolites are sensitive and specific biomarkers for measuring CYP2D6 activity. Since potato consumption is common worldwide, this biomarker could be useful for evaluating CYP2D6-mediated drug-drug interactions and to improve prediction of CYP2D6 activity in addition to genotyping.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
Number of pages16
JournalHuman genomics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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