Simulation of slot-coating of nanocellulosic material subject to a wall-stress dependent slip-velocity at die-walls

Fuaad P. A. *, Agne Swerin, Fredrik Lundell, Martti Toivakka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


Bio-based nanocellulosic materials are non-toxic, renewable, exhibit excellent barrier properties, and are suitable candidates for sustainable food packaging applications. Sizing and designing coating parameters for slot-coating process using nanocellulose suspensions is challenging due to complex shear-thinning rheology and the presence of a water-rich boundary layer, effecting significant apparent slip at the wall. Previous studies have shown that the flow inside the coating bead can be complex, with occasional stagnation regions and a rheological model incorporating yield stress which should be considered while analyzing slot coating of nanocellulosic flows. This work extends earlier investigations by including the effects of the particle depleted water-rich boundary layer. The suspension is modeled as a Casson fluid with a shear-thinning viscosity, and the particle depletion at the wall is represented by an infinitely thin layer modeled as a local shear-dependent nonlinear slip law. The resulting two-phase flow equations are solved using a Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupled with the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method for tracking the free surface interface. It is observed that slip alters the flow’s dynamics in the coating bead, and the effect of slip cannot be ignored, especially at high shear rates. For thin films, the presence of slip enhances the flow, leading to more material coated on the substrate. In contrast, for thicker coatings, apparent slip leads to an augmentation in stagnant, non-yielded regions, potentially generating uneven surfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-120
JournalJournal of Coatings Technology and Research
Issue number1
Early online date10 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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