Screening of 16 major drug glucuronides for time-dependent inhibition of nine drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes – detailed studies on CYP3A inhibitors

Helinä Kahma, Marie-Noëlle Paludetto, Mikko Neuvonen, Mika Kurkela, Anne M. Filppula, Mikko Niemi, Janne T. Backman

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Time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes has been observed for a few glucuronide metabolites of clinically used drugs. Here, we investigated the inhibitory potential of 16 glucuronide metabolites towards nine major CYP enzymes in vitro. Automated substrate cocktail methods were used to screen time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2J2 and 3A in human liver microsomes. Seven glucuronides (carvedilol β-D-glucuronide, diclofenac acyl-β-D-glucuronide, 4-hydroxyduloxetine β-D-glucuronide, ezetimibe phenoxy-β-D-glucuronide, raloxifene 4′-glucuronide, repaglinide acyl-β-D-glucuronide and valproic acid β-D-glucuronide) caused NADPH- and time-dependent inhibition of at least one of the CYPs investigated, including CYP2A6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In more detailed experiments, we focused on the glucuronides of carvedilol and diclofenac, which inhibited CYP3A. Carvedilol β-D-glucuronide showed weak time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A, but the parent drug carvedilol was found to be a more potent inhibitor of CYP3A, with the half-maximal inhibitor concentration (IC 50) decreasing from 7.0 to 1.1 µM after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH. The maximal inactivation constant (k inact) and the inhibitor concentration causing half of k inact (K I) for CYP3A inactivation by carvedilol were 0.051 1/min and 1.8 µM, respectively. Diclofenac acyl-β-D-glucuronide caused time-dependent inactivation of CYP3A at high concentrations, with a 4-fold IC 50 shift (from 400 to 98 µM after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH) and K I and k inact values of >2,000 µM and >0.16 1/min. In static predictions, carvedilol caused significant (>1.25-fold) increase in the exposure of the CYP3A substrates midazolam and simvastatin. In conclusion, we identified several glucuronide metabolites with CYP inhibitory properties. Based on detailed experiments, the inactivation of CYP3A by carvedilol may cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106735
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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