Water samples taken from 93 freshwater and brackish water locations in Åland (SW Finland) in 2001 were analysed for biomass-bound microcystins and nodularin, cyanobacterial peptide hepatotoxins, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring modes, HPLC-UV, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The extracted toxins were separated on a short C18 column with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.5% formic acid, and quantified on a Micromass Quattro Micro triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source operated in the positive SIR or scan mode. An injection of 50 pg of microcystin-LR, m/z 995.5, on column gave a signal-to-noise ratio of 17 (peak-to-peak) at the chosen SIR conditions. In-source or MS-MS fragmentation to m/z 135.1, a fragment common to most microcystins and nodularin, was used for confirmatory purposes. Microcystins with a total toxin concentration equal to or higher than 0.2 μg l-1 were confirmed by all three methods in water samples from 14 locations. The highest toxin concentration in a water sample was 42 μg l-1. The most common toxins found were microcystins RR, LR and YR with different degrees of demethylation (non-, mono- or didemethylated). Parallel results achieved with ELISA and HPLC-UV were generally in good agreement with the LC-MS SIR results.
- Environmental analysis
- Water analysis