Sampling of fluid through skin with magnetohydrodynamics for noninvasive glucose monitoring

Tuuli A. Hakala, Alejandro García Pérez, Melissa Wardale, Ida A. Ruuth, Risto T. Vänskä, Teemu A. Nurminen, Emily Kemp, Zhanna A. Boeva, Juha Matti Alakoskela, Kim Pettersson-Fernholm, Edward Hæggström, Johan Bobacka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Out of 463 million people currently with diabetes, 232 million remain undiagnosed. Diabetes is a threat to human health, which could be mitigated via continuous self-monitoring of glucose. In addition to blood, interstitial fluid is considered to be a representative sample for glucose monitoring, which makes it highly attractive for wearable on-body sensing. However, new technologies are needed for efficient and noninvasive sampling of interstitial fluid through the skin. In this report, we introduce the use of Lorentz force and magnetohydrodynamics to noninvasively extract dermal interstitial fluid. Using porcine skin as an ex-vivo model, we demonstrate that the extraction rate of magnetohydrodynamics is superior to that of reverse iontophoresis. This work seeks to provide a safe, effective, and noninvasive sampling method to unlock the potential of wearable sensors in needle-free continuous glucose monitoring devices that can benefit people living with diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7609
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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