Revealing the Mechanism behind the Catastrophic Failure of n-i-p Type Perovskite Solar Cells under Operating Conditions and How to Suppress It

Changzeng Ding, Li Yin, Lianping Zhang, Rong Huang, Shizhao Fan, Qun Luo, Jian Lin, Fangsen Li, Chun Zhao, Ronald Österbacka, Chang Qi Ma*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The n-i-p type perovskite solar cells suffer unpredictable catastrophic failure under operation, which is a barrier for their commercialization. The fluorescence enhancement at Ag electrode edge and performance recovery after cutting the Ag electrode edge off prove that the shunting position is mainly located at the edge of device. Surface morphology and elemental analyses prove the corrosion of the Ag electrode and the diffusion of Ag+ ions on the edge for aged cells. Moreover, much condensed and larger Ag clusters are formed on the MoO3 layer. Such a contrast is also observed while comparing the central and the edge of the Ag/Spiro-OMeTAD film. Hence, the catastrophic failure mechanism can be concluded as photon-induced decomposition of the perovskite film and release reactive iodide species, which diffuse and react with the loose Ag clusters on the edge of the cell. The corrosion of the Ag electrode and the migration of Ag+ ions into Spiro-OMeTAD and perovskite films lead to the forming of conducting filament that shunts the cell. The more condensed Ag cluster on the MoO3 surface as well as the blocking of holes within the Spiro-OMeTAD/MoO3 interface successfully prevent the oxidation of Ag electrode and suppress the catastrophic failure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2103820
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Volume31
Issue number40
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • catastrophic failure
  • ion migration
  • operation stability
  • perovskite solar cells

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