Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

Jari E. Heikkilä, Sonja M.K. Nybom, Seppo J. Salminen, Jussi A.O. Meriluoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583), to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-673
Number of pages9
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bifidobacterium
  • Cholera toxin
  • Lactobacillus
  • Probiotic bacteria


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