Regulating the Baltic Sea – A Showcase of Normative Pluralism

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The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) faces several challenges, not the least in respect ofthe poor state of the sea itself. The regulatory framework governing the BSR is complex,displaying a multi-layered structure with up to five regulatory levels. The regulatory scene isalso characterised by many features that could be assumed under the umbrella of post-nationalrulemaking. This article discusses features of the pluralisation of BSR regulation. The BSRregulatory framework is on the one hand rich with regulatory initiatives at the fringes of both‘actorness’ and ‘ruleness’. On the other hand, the framework is characterised by crossfertilisationbetween regulatory layers. Such interaction can add to the regulatory impact ofnormatively soft acts, but can also come with drawbacks. In any case, the article claims, acomplete picture of BSR regulation can only be attained through an appreciation of normativepluralism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-374
JournalGerman Yearbook of International Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • European Union
  • International organizations
  • Baltic sea


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