Ecological modernisation has been an obvious choice of sustainability policy in many Western European countries. We see it in several national and comparative studies and Finland is no exception to this trend. In Finland the ecological modernization debate gained in strength during the 1990’s. The recession of the early 1990’s and the consequent budgetary restraint of the state were accompanied by local governmental implementation of ecological modernisation policies; in this case without any major support from the state. This can paradoxically be seen as a strong point of the Finnish ecological modernisation process, as local solutions are based on a ‘bottom-up’ approach, instead of a ‘top-down’ policy.
The articles in this thesis examine the reflexive nature of national and local environmental policies and administration in Finland through different approaches. The study gives the reader a comprehensive overview of Finnish environmental and sustainability policies across all levels of government.
|Publication status||Published - 2001|
|MoE publication type||G5 Doctoral dissertation (article)|