Raman based pH measurements with polyaniline

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    The reversible acid-base equilibrium between the emeraldine salt (ES) and the emeraldine base (EB) form of thin electropolymerized films of polyaniline (PANI) has been studied between pH 2 and 9 with in situ Raman spectroscopy using the 514, 633 and 780 nm laser excitation wavelengths. The electropolymerization of PANI was done with cyclic voltammetry in a flow cell from a solution consisting of 50 mM aniline and 1.0 M HCl. It is shown that the Raman signal of the C=N stretching vibration at 1439 cm(-1), originating from the quinoid units of the EB form, can be used for pH measurements between pH 3 and 6 with the 633 nm laser. This vibration is strongly resonance enhanced by the 633 nm laser and its intensity grows therefore considerably in the pH interval where the ES-EB transition mainly takes place (pH 3-6). The influence of the film conditioning pH was also studied as well as the reproducibility of the Raman spectra when pH was changed several times from pH 6 to 3.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)320–329
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • 514 nm
    • 633 nm
    • 780 nm
    • conducting polymer
    • emeraldine base (EB)
    • emeraldine salt (ES)
    • pH measurements
    • polyaniline
    • Raman spectroscopy

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