Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics – A comparison between different flame retardant structures

Marie Teixeira, Rodolphe Sonnier*, Belkacem Otazaghine, Laurent Ferry, Mélanie Aubert, Teija Tirri, Carl Eric Wilén, Sophie Rouif

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-142
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Flame retardancy
  • Flax fibers
  • Radiation-grafting


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