Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics – A comparison between different flame retardant structures

Marie Teixeira, Rodolphe Sonnier*, Belkacem Otazaghine, Laurent Ferry, Mélanie Aubert, Teija Tirri, Carl Eric Wilén, Sophie Rouif

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-142
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Physics and Chemistry
Volume145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Flame retardancy
  • Flax fibers
  • Radiation-grafting

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