Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer. To reveal the Th17 cell-specific proteomic signature regulating Th17 cell differentiation and function in humans, we used a label-free mass spectrometry-based approach. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of the proteome and transcriptome of cells during human Th17 differentiation revealed a high degree of overlap between the datasets. However, when compared with corresponding published mouse data, we found very limited overlap between the proteins differentially regulated in response to Th17 differentiation. Validations were made for a panel of selected proteins with known and unknown functions. Finally, using RNA interference, we showed that SATB1 negatively regulates human Th17 cell differentiation. Overall, the current study illustrates a comprehensive picture of the global protein landscape during early human Th17 cell differentiation. Poor overlap with mouse data underlines the importance of human studies for translational research.