Protected Freshwater Ecosystem with Incessant Cyanobacterial Blooming Awaiting a Resolution

Nada Tokodi, Damjana Drobac Backović, Jelena Lujić, Ilija Šćekić, Snežana Simić, Nevena Đorđević, Tamara Dulic, Branko Miljanović, Nevena Kitanović, Zoran Marinović, Henna Savela, Jussi Meriluoto, Zorica Svirčev

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 For 50 years persistent cyanobacterial blooms have been observed in Lake Ludoš (Serbia),a wetland area of international significance listed as a Ramsar site. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxinscan affect many organisms, including valuable flora and fauna, such as rare and endangered birdspecies living or visiting the lake. The aim was to carry out monitoring, estimate the current statusof the lake, and discuss potential resolutions. Results obtained showed: (a) the poor chemical stateof the lake; (b) the presence of potentially toxic (genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Planktothrix,Chroococcus, Oscillatoria, Woronichinia and dominant species Limnothrix redekei and Pseudanabaenalimnetica) and invasive cyanobacterial species Raphidiopsis raciborskii; (c) the detection of microcystin(MC) and saxitoxin (STX) coding genes in biomass samples; (d) the detection of several microcystinvariants (MC-LR, MC-dmLR, MC-RR, MC-dmRR, MC-LF) in water samples; (e) histopathologicalalterations in fish liver, kidney and gills. The potential health risk to all organisms in the ecosystemand the ecosystem itself is thus still real and present. Although there is still no resolution in sight,urgent remediation measures are needed to alleviate the incessant cyanobacterial problem in LakeLudoš to break this ecosystem out of the perpetual state of limbo in which it has been trapped forquite some time. 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • plankton blooms
  • microcystin
  • cyanobacteria
  • harmful algal blooms
  • Cyanotoxins


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