Prognostic histological markers in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with (chemo)radiotherapy

Aini Hyytiäinen, Rayan Mroueh, Johanna Peltonen, Pia Wennerstrand, Antti Mäkitie, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Sami Ventelä, Tuula Salo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Treatment of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) frequently includes surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Resistance to RT or CRT remains a major clinical challenge and highlights the need to identify predictive markers for it. We included 71 OTSCC patients treated with surgery combined with RT or CRT. We evaluated the association between tumor budding, tumor–stroma ratio (TSR), depth of invasion (DOI), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) expression, high-endothelial venules (HEVs), and disease-free survival (DFS) using uni- and multivariate analyses. No significant association was observed between the different histological and molecular markers (TSR, DOI, TILs, HEV, HIF-1alph, OCT4) and DFS. However, an associative trend between DOI, budding, and DFS was noted. Further studies with larger cohorts are needed to explore the prognostic value of DOI and budding for OTSCC patients treated with postoperative RT or CRT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-151
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The project was funded by the Victoriastiftelsen Foundation, Orion Research Foundation, Sigrid Jusélius Foundation and Helsinki University Hospital Research Funds.

FundersFunder number
Victoriastiftelsen Foundation
Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa
Sigrid Jusélius Foundation
Orionin Tutkimussäätiö


    • chemoresistance
    • high-endothelial venules
    • hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha
    • octamer-binding transcription factor 4
    • Oral cancer
    • prognostic marker
    • radioresistance


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