Preparation of Anode Material of Lithium-Ion Battery by Spent Pickling Liquor

Qing Zhao, Wenjie Li, Chengjun Liu, Maofa Jiang, Henrik Saxén, Cornelis A P Zevenhoven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Spent pickling liquor (SPL) from the process of the stainless-steel pickling and lithium-ion battery anode material have similar elemental compositions. Inspired by this fact, a process of preparing lithium-ion battery anode materials from SPL is proposed in this work. Key steps of the preparation of precursor by co-precipitation, preparation of composite transition metal oxide (CTMO) by high-temperature ball milling, and preparation and electrochemical performance of anode materials were investigated. The Fe, Cr, and Ni resources of SPL were recovered by co-precipitation at pH = 11, and the leachate met the effluent discharge standard. The temperature of ball milling was studied in detail, with results indicating that the decomposition of CTMO precursors was incomplete at 400 °C and 500 after 3 h of treatment. Raising the temperature increases the reaction rate. For the ball milling process, a temperature of 600 °C is suggested. An anode material MxOy/C, with M = Fe, Cr, and Ni was manufactured, and its electrochemical performance was found to be similar or even superior to that of a single oxide. The process proposed in this study is feasible and has been successfully demonstrated, which provides a new approach to the treatment of similar wastes in the metallurgical field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-159
Number of pages12
Early online date12 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Spent pickling liquor
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Anode materials
  • Resource utilization
  • Cleaner production


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