Potentiometric sensors based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with sulfonated calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcarenes

Johan Bobacka, M Luostarinen, K Rissanen, Andrzej Lewenstam, Ari Ivaska, Mercedes Vázquez

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Potentiometric ion sensors have been prepared by galvanostatic electrosynthesis of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with p-sulfonated calix[4]arene (C[4]S) and p-methylsulfonated calix[4]resorcarenes (R-n[4]S) with alkyl substituents of different chain length (R-1 = CH3; R-2 = C2H5; R-3 = C6H13). The bowl-shape of these doping ions makes them suitable as ionic recognition sites, and their bulky character is expected to prevent them from leaching out of the conducting polymer membrane. For comparison, sensors based on PEDOT doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(vinyl sulfonate) (PVS) were also constructed. The resulting GC/PEDOT electrodes were conditioned in 0.01 mol L-1 AgNO3 and their performance as Ag+ ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) studied. Results reveal that selectivity and lifetime of the electrodes is affected by the doping anion structure, although all electrodes show selectivity towards Ag+ ions. Interaction of Ag+ with sulfur atoms present in the conducting polymer backbone is considered to be the main reason for this behavior. A second set of electrodes was constructed and conditioned in 0.1 mol L-1 KCl. These electrodes were tested in chloride solutions of quaternary ammonium cations, showing that C[4] S and R-2[4] S exhibit significant sensitivity towards pyridinium.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)312–319
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • calix[4]arene
  • calix[4]resorcarene
  • Silver

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