Potentiometric Carboxylate Sensors Based on Carbazole-Derived Acyclic and Macrocyclic Ionophores

Ville Yrjänä, Indrek Saar, Mihkel Ilisson, Sandip A Kadam, Ivo Leito, Johan Bobacka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Solid-contact ion-selective electrodes with carbazole-derived ionophores were prepared. They were characterized as acetate sensors, but can be used to determine a number of carboxylates. The potentiometric response characteristics (slope, detection limit, selectivity, and pH sensitivity) of sensors prepared with different membrane compositions (ionophore, ionophore concentration, anion exchanger concentration, and plasticizer) were evaluated. The results show that for the macrocyclic ionophores, a larger cavity provided better selectivity. The sensors exhibited modest selectivity for acetate but good selectivity for benzoate. The carbazole-derived ionophores effectively decreased the interference from lipophilic anions, such as bromide, nitrate, iodide, and thiocyanate. The selectivity, detection limit, and linear range were improved by choosing a suitable plasticizer and by reducing the ionophore and anion exchanger concentrations. The influence of the electrode body’s material upon the composition of the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane, and thus also upon the sensor characteristics, was also studied. The choice of materials for the electrode body significantly affected the characteristics of the sensors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
Number of pages26
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Dec 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ion-selective electrodes
  • anion receptors
  • ionophores
  • carboxylate
  • electrode shell material


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