Potentially immunogenic contaminants in wood-based and bacterial nanocellulose: Assessment of endotoxin and (1,3)-β-d-glucan levels

Jun Liu, Markus Bacher, Thomas Rosenau, Stefan Willför, Albert Mihranyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Knowledge gaps in the biosafety data of the nanocellulose (NC) for biomedical use through various routes of administration call for closer look at health and exposure evaluation. This work evaluated the potentially immunogenic contaminants levels, for example, endotoxin and (1,3)-beta-D-glucan, in four representative NCs, that is, wood-based NCs and bacterial cellulose (BC). The hot-water extracts were analyzed with ELISA assays, HPSEC-MALLS, GC, and NMR analysis. Varying levels of endotoxin and (1,3)-beta-D-glucan contaminats were found in these widely used NCs. Although the beta-(1,3)-D-glucan was not detected from the NMR spectra due to the small extract samples amount (2-7 mg), the anomerics and highly diastereotopic 6-CH2 signals may suggest the presence of beta-(1,4)-linkages with beta-(1,6) branching in the polysaccharides of NCs' hot-water extracts, which were otherwise not detectable in the enzymatic assay. In all, the article highlights the importance of monitoring various water-soluble potentially immunogenic contaminants in NC for biomedical use.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)150–157
Number of pages8
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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