Influenza A viruses cause infections in the human respiratory tract and give rise to annual seasonal outbreaks, as well as more rarely dreaded pandemics. Influenza A viruses become quickly resistant to the virus-directed antiviral treatments, which are the current main treatment options. A promising alternative approach is to target host cell factors that are exploited by influenza viruses. To this end, we characterized the phosphoproteome of influenza A virus infected primary human macrophages to elucidate the intracellular signaling pathways and critical host factors activated upon influenza infection. We identified 1675 phosphoproteins, 4004 phosphopeptides and 4146 nonredundant phosphosites. The phosphorylation of 1113 proteins (66%) was regulated upon infection, highlighting the importance of such global phosphoproteomic profiling in primary cells. Notably, 285 of the identified phosphorylation sites have not been previously described in publicly available phosphorylation databases, despite many published large-scale phosphoproteome studies using human and mouse cell lines. Systematic bioinformatics analysis of the phosphoproteome data indicated that the phosphorylation of proteins involved in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (such as TRIM22 and TRIM25) and antiviral responses (such as MAVS) changed in infected macrophages. Proteins known to play roles in small GTPase-, mitogen-activated protein kinase-, and cyclin-dependent kinase-signaling were also regulated by phosphorylation upon infection. In particular, the influenza infection had a major influence on the phosphorylation profiles of a large number of cyclin-dependent kinase substrates. Functional studies using cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors showed that the cyclin-dependent kinase activity is required for efficient viral replication and for activation of the host antiviral responses. In addition, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors protect IAV-infected mice from death. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive phosphoproteome characterization of influenza A virus infection in primary human macrophages, and provide evidence that cyclin-dependent kinases represent potential therapeutic targets for more effective treatment of influenza infections.