Mesoporous SBA-15 silicate with a high surface area was prepared by a hydrothermal method, successively modified by organic melamine ligands and then used for deposition of Pd nanoparticles onto it. The synthesized materials were characterized with infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). The catalyst was effectively used in the Mizoroki–Heck coupling reaction of various reactants in the presence of an organic base giving the desired products in a short reaction time and with small catalysts loadings. The reaction parameters such as the base type, amounts of catalyst, solvents, and the temperature were optimized. The catalyst was easily recovered and reused at least seven times without significant activity losses.