Paper-supported nanostructured ultrathin gold film electrodes - Characterization and functionalization

Petri Ihalainen, Anni Määttänen, Markus Pesonen, Pia Sjöberg, Jawad Sarfraz, Ronald Österbacka, Jouko Peltonen

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Ultrathin gold films (UTGFs) were fabricated on a nanostructured latex-coated paper substrate by physical vapour deposition (PVD) with the aim to provide low-cost and flexible conductive electrodes in paper-based electronics. Morphological, electric and optical properties of UTGFs were dependent on the deposited film thickness. In addition, UTGFs were functionalized with insulating and hydrophobic 1-octadecanethiol self-assembled monolayer and inkjet-printed conductive and hydrophilic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) layer and their electrochemical properties were examined. Results showed that sufficient mechanical stability and adhesion of UTGFs deposited on latex-coated paper was achieved without the need on any additional adhesive layers, enabling a more robust fabrication process of the electrodes. UTGF electrodes tolerated extensive bending without adverse effects and conductivity comparable to the bulk gold was obtained already with the film thickness of 6 nm. Although not been fabricated with the high-throughput method like printing, a very low material consumption (similar to 12 mu g/cm(2)) together with a high conductivity (resistivity < 3 x 10(-6) Omega cm) makes the UTGFs electrodes potential candidates low-cost components in flexible electronics. In addition, the excellent stability of the UTGF electrodes in electrochemical experiments enables their application in the development of paper-based electrochemical platforms, e.g. for biosensing purposes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)321–329
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Surface Science
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Electrochemical characterization
  • Self assembly monolayer
  • Ultrathin gold film

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