Ozonation of carbamazepine and its main transformation products: Product determination and reaction mechanisms

Matilda Kråkström*, Soudabeh Saeid, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Tapio Salmi, Leif Kronberg, Patrik Eklund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a recalcitrant pharmaceutical often detected in wastewater and in the environment. CBZ can be removed from wastewater through advanced oxidation treatment methods such as ozonation. In this study, CBZ and its transformation product 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD) were ozonated, and the formation and transformation of their ozonation products were investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The main products, 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one (BQM) and BQD were quantified using isolated standards and LC-UV. Of the original CBZ concentration, 74% was transformed into BQM and 83% of BQM was further transformed into BQD. Both products are more stable than CBZ and could still be detected after 240 min of ozonation. Another major product, 2,2′-azanediyldibenzaldehyde (TP225) was for the first time identified using NMR. Twelve further CBZ products were identified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23258-23269
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Carbamazepine
  • Ozonation
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Product identification
  • Quantification
  • Transformation products
  • Wastewater treatment


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