Optimal Resource Allocation in Steel Making Using Torrefied Biomass as Auxiliary Reductant

Anders Carl-Mikael Wiklund, Henrik Saxén, Mikko Helle

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


    Steelmaking is an energy intensive industrial sector and being largely coal-based it gives rise to 5-6 % of the global CO2 emissions. Energy use for producing one ton of crude steel has been reduced by 50% since 1975, but the annual production rate of crude steel has been increasing more strongly. Since 2002, the production rate has increased by almost 80% amounting to 1510 Mt in 2012, and this trend seems to continue in the future. Therefore, making the iron production itself more efficient is not enough to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. A possible remedy is to replace part of the fossil reductants by renewables and to optimize the entire production chain from ores to steel, allowing more beneficial resource allocation in the processes involved. The present study focuses on the use of biomass as auxiliary reductant in the blast furnace, also paying attention to the effect of the introduction on the material and energy flows of the whole steel plant using a simulation model. Substituting part of the fossil coke or injected hydrocarbon by biomass may result in reduced fossil carbon dioxide emissions, as long as the biomass is harvested, transported and pre-processed in a sustainable way. As the biomass may need upgrading before it is used, a torrefaction model is included in the steel plant model. Results are presented from studies where the entire system is optimized with respect to costs, considering a penalty for CO2 emissions.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Title of host publicationInternational Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM 2013)
    EditorsAhmet Yavuz Oral, Zehra Banu Bahsi, Mehmet Özer
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-05521-3
    ISBN (Print)978-3-319-05520-6
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Eventconference; 2013-10-09; 2013-10-12 - Antalya, Turkey
    Duration: 9 Oct 201312 Oct 2013


    Conferenceconference; 2013-10-09; 2013-10-12

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