Numerical Study of Gas Flow and Temperature Patterns in the Blast Furnace Throat

Debanga Mondal*, Weiqiang Liu, Hauke Bartusch, Yalcin Kaymak, Timo Paananen, Olli Mattila, Henrik Saxén

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


The gas distribution in the shaft is of key importance for the performance of the blast furnace process, since it affects the way in which the burden is heated and reduced, and also the pressure drop in the shaft and cohesive zone. Traditionally, the gas distribution is followed by gas temperature measurements at several points over the radius or diagonal by the above-burden probes, but novel acoustic techniques can estimate the gas temperature over the full cross section of the throat. A fundamental problem is that the gas is redistributed in the upper bed and above it, so the measured profile may no longer reflect the conditions in the shaft. This paper studies the gas redistribution by a CFD model of the throat region, neglecting heat transfer to the bed and walls. It is demonstrated that strong redistribution and downward-swirling flows may occur, which affect the measurements. The arising conditions under different assumptions of the bed state are studied, and the dynamics of the changes are also briefly analyzed. A comparison of the findings of the computational model with acoustic measurements of the gas temperatures in the throat of two industrial blast furnaces reveals a good resemblance. The results of the study sheds light on the complex flow conditions of the gas in the blast furnace throat region and can be used to interpret information from measuring devices and to study how their positioning affects the measurements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3882-3895
Number of pages14
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • blast furnace throat
  • gas flow
  • CFD
  • flow patterns


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