Numerical simulation of hot metal carbonization by dead‐man coke in the blast furnace hearth

Lei Shao, Chengbo Zhang, Qu Yingxia, Henrik Saxén, Zongshu Zou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


An adequate and stable carbon content of hot metal plays a key role in maintaining a low production cost of the conventional steelmaking route, involving the blast furnace (BF) and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). The carbonization of BF hot metal by dead-man coke in the hearth region, which has been considered decisive for the final carbon content in the liquid, is yet to be explored because it has not received much attention. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is established to provide an overall picture of hot metal carbonization by dead-man coke in the BF hearth. The main assumptions and simplifications, as well as the governing equations involving momentum and species transport in a multiphase system concerning the dead man and hot metal, are outlined herein, where the accuracy of the model is verified by comparison with measured data from an industrial BF. The model is illustrated by a set of simulation cases that examine how different factors affect the carbonization process. The model and its results are expected to be helpful for the BF operator to advance the knowledge and understanding of the complex phenomena in the BF hearth.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1900460
JournalSteel Research International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • dead-man state
  • hot metal carbon contents
  • hot metal flow
  • numerical models
  • blast furnace hearth


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