Numerical modelling of blast furnace – Evolution and recent trends

Prakash B. Abhale, Nurni N. Viswanathan*, Henrik Saxén

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Article or Literature Reviewpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
267 Downloads (Pure)


In a journey of centuries, the ironmaking blast furnace has gone through many technological changes, which made it a fit-for-purpose till today. However, for the first time in history, its existence is being challenged by other iron making processes, due to its high carbon footprint compared to others. Many researchers are working on adapting the existing blast furnace process to meet the new challenges. Modelling has played a crucial role in new adaptations of the process. The present review has been dedicated to historical developments of blast furnace modelling. The models are broadly classified into comprehensive, zone-specific, and data-driven models. The comprehensive models are further classified into lumped models, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D steady state and transient models, and CFD-DEM models. For the purpose of brevity, the zone-specific models are exemplified by burden distribution models only. Finally, developments in data-driven models are discussed, before some general conclusions are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-183
Number of pages18
JournalMineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


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