Multi-factorial approach to early numeracy—The effects of cognitive skills, language factors and kindergarten attendance on early numeracy performance of South African first graders

Pirjo Aunio, Johan Korhonen, Lara Ragpot, Minna Törmänen, Riikka Mononen, Elizabeth Henning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cognitive skills (executive function), language factors (listening comprehension, English as a second language, ESL) and kindergarten attendance on early numeracy in a cross-sectional sample of South African children (N=442) in the beginning of Grade 1. The mean age of children was 81.62 months (SD=5.40). Structural equation path models showed that kindergarten attendance predicted children’s early numeracy performance even when controlling for executive function and language skills. Listening comprehension skills predicted the early numeracy skills more strongly than did executive function skills. ESL was associated with weaker early numeracy performance.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)65–76
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Research
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Listening comprehension
  • English as a second language
  • Kindergarten attendance
  • early numeracy

Cite this