The aim of the current study was to assess modality-specific brain oscillatory responses during cognitive processing. Brain oscillatory ERD/ERS responses of the 4- to 30-Hz EEG frequency bands were examined during lexical decision where the task is to identify whether the presented stimulus is a word or a pseudoword. Seven subjects performed the task with visual stimuli and twelve subjects with auditory stimuli. Visual stimuli elicited greater theta ERS responses as compared to the auditory stimuli. Both stimulus modalities elicited alpha and beta frequency ERD, these being greater for the auditory stimuli. Auditory stimuli elicited also later emerging beta ERS responses, absent for the visual stimuli. The lexicality effects (words vs. pseudowords) were greater for the auditory than for the visual stimuli. When studying brain oscillatory correlates of cognitive processing, the stimulus modality matters. Some effects may arise and some vanish depending on in which modality a cognitive experiment is being conducted. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.