In this study we have addressed the ability of the glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) to transfer anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide at different pH and sodium chloride concentrations, and the ability of three different mutants to transfer the fluorescently labeled galactosylceramide between donor and acceptor model membranes. We constructed single tryptophan mutants with site-directed mutagenesis where two of the three tryptophan (W) of wild-type human GLTP were substituted with phenylalanine (F) and named W85 GLTP (W96F and W142F), W96 GLTP (W85F and W14217) and W142 GLTP (W85F and W96F) accordingly. Wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP were both able to transfer anthrylvinylgalactosylceramide, but the two variants W85 GLTP and W142 GLTP did not show any glycolipid transfer activity, indicating that the tryptophan in position 96 is crucial for transfer activity. Tryptophan fluorescence emission showed a blue shift of the maximal emission wavelength upon interaction of glycolipid containing vesicle with wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP, while no blue shift was recorded for the protein variants W85 GLTP and W142 GLTR The quantum yield of tryptophan emission was highest for the W96 GLTP protein whereas W85 GLTP, W142 GLTP and wild-type GLTP showed a lower and almost similar quantum yield. The lifetime and anisotropy decay of the different tryptophan mutants also changed upon binding to vesicles containing galactosylceramide. Again wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP showed similar behavior in the presence of vesicles containing glycolipids. Taken together, our data show that the W96 is involved not only in the activity of the protein but also in the interaction between the protein and glycolipid containing membranes.
- site-directed mutagenesis