Mechanical characterization and ex vivo evaluation of anticancer and antiviral drug printed bioadhesive film for the treatment of cervical cancer

Cem Varan, Murat Şen, Niklas Sandler, Yeşim Aktaş, Erem Bilensoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


As research progresses on personalized medicines, it is clear that personalized and flexible formulations can provide effective treatment with reduced side effects especially for diseases like cancer, characteristic of high patient variability. 2D and 3D printers are frequently reported in the literature for the preparation of pharmaceutical products with adjusted dose and selected drug combinations. However, in-depth characterization studies of these formulations are rather limited. In this paper, ex vivo and mechanical characterization studies of antiviral and anticancer drug printed film formulations designed for personalized application were performed. Effects of the printing process with pharmaceutical formulations such as paclitaxel(PCX):cyclodextrin (CD) complex or cidofovir (CDV) encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) nanoparticles on the films were evaluated through a series of mechanical characterization studies. Inkjet printing process was found to cause no significant change in the thicknesses of the film formulations, while mechanical strength and surface free energy increased and nano-sized voids in the film structure decreased. According to the mechanical characterization data, the unprinted film had maximum force (Fmax) value of 15.6 MPa whereas Fmax increased to 43.8 MPa for PCX:CD complex printed film and to 37.7 MPa for the antiviral CDV-PEG-PCL nanoparticle printed film. In the light of ex vivo findings of sheep cervix-uterine tissue, bioadhesive properties of film formulations significantly improved after inkjet printing with different drug formulations. It has also been shown that the anticancer formulation printed on the film was maintained at the cervix tissue surface for >12 h.

This study has shown for the first time that inkjet printing process does not adversely affect the mechanical properties of the bioadhesive film formulations. It has also been shown that durable bioadhesive film formulations for personalized dosing can be prepared by combining nanotechnology and inkjet printing.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)114–123
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bioadhesive film
  • Nanoparticle
  • Ex vivo
  • Inkjet printing
  • Personalized medicine
  • Cervival cancer

Cite this