Macro-Molecules as a Source of Levulinic Acid

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    The production of levulinic acid from biomass and macromolecules has been reviewed. It was concluded that the most important parameters in the one-pot hydrolysis of biomass, also including dehydration of glucose to hydroxymethylfurfural as well as its further rehydration to formic and levulinic acids, respectively, are the reaction temperature, initial reactant concentration, acid type as well as the raw material applied.The theoretical maximum yield can hardly be obtained due to formation of humins.Further, the optimum reaction conditions as well as the influence of the catalyst and biomass type are also discussed
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)44–58
    JournalInternational Review of Chemical Engineering
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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