Large-Area Interfaces for Single-Molecule Label-free Bioelectronic Detection

Eleonora Macchia, Fabrizio Torricelli, Paolo Bollella, Lucia Sarcina, Angelo Tricase, Cinzia Di Franco, Ronald Österbacka, Zsolt M. Kovács-Vajna, Gaetano Scamarcio, Luisa Torsi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Article or Literature Reviewpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Bioelectronic transducing surfaces that are nanometric in size have been the main route to detect single molecules. Though enabling the study of rarer events, such methodologies are not suited to assay at concentrations below the nanomolar level. Bioelectronic field-effect-transistors with a wide (μm 2-mm 2) transducing interface are also assumed to be not suited, because the molecule to be detected is orders of magnitude smaller than the transducing surface. Indeed, it is like seeing changes on the surface of a one-kilometer-wide pond when a droplet of water falls on it. However, it is a fact that a number of large-area transistors have been shown to detect at a limit of detection lower than femtomolar; they are also fast and hence innately suitable for point-of-care applications. This review critically discusses key elements, such as sensing materials, FET-structures, and target molecules that can be selectively assayed. The amplification effects enabling extremely sensitive large-area bioelectronic sensing are also addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4636-4699
JournalChemical Reviews
Volume122
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

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